Carbon capture and storage (CCS) technologies are considered vital and economic elements for achieving global CO2 reduction targets, and is currently introduced worldwide (for more information on CCS, consult for example the websites of the International Energy Agency (http://www.iea.org/topics/ccs/) and the Global CCS Institute (http://www.globalccsinstitute.com/)). One prominent CCS technology, the amine-based post-combustion process, may generate nitrosamines and their related nitramines as by-products, the former well known for their potential mutagenic and carcinogenic properties. In order to efficiently assess the carcinogenic potency of any of these by-products this paper reviews and discusses novel prediction approaches consuming less time, money and animals than the traditionally applied 2-year rodent assay. For this, available animal carcinogenicity studies with N-nitroso compounds and nitramines have been used to derive carcinogenic potency values, that were subsequently used to assess the predictive performance of alternative prediction approaches for these chemicals. Promising cancer prediction models are the QSARs developed by the Helguera group, in vitro transformation assays, and the in vivo initiation-promotion, and transgenic animal assays. All these models, however, have not been adequately explored for this purpose, as the number of N-nitroso compounds investigated is yet too limited, and therefore further testing with relevant N-nitroso compounds is needed.