Print Email Facebook Twitter Understanding workers' exposure: Systematic review and data-analysis of emission potential for NOAA Title Understanding workers' exposure: Systematic review and data-analysis of emission potential for NOAA Author Kuijpers, E. Bekker, C. Brouwer, D. le Feber, M. Fransman, W. Publication year 2017 Abstract Exposure assessment for nano-objects, and their aggregates and agglomerates (NOAA), has evolved from explorative research toward more comprehensive exposure assessment, providing data to further develop currently used conservative control banding (CB) tools for risk assessment. This study aims to provide an overview of current knowledge on emission potential of NOAA across the occupational life cycle stages by a systematic review and subsequently use the results in a data analysis. Relevant parameters that influence emission were collected from peer-reviewed literature with a focus on the four source domains (SD) in the source-receptor conceptual framework for NOAA. To make the reviewed exposure data comparable, we applied an approach to normalize for workplace circumstances and measurement location, resulting in comparable "surrogate" emission levels. Finally, descriptive statistics were performed. During the synthesis of nanoparticles (SD1), mechanical reduction and gas phase synthesis resulted in the highest emission compared to wet chemistry and chemical vapor condensation. For the handling and transfer of bulk manufactured nanomaterial powders (SD2) the emission could be differentiated for five activity classes: (1) harvesting; (2) dumping; (3); mixing; (4) cleaning of a reactor; and (5) transferring. Additionally, SD2 was subdivided by the handled amount with cleaning further subdivided by energy level. Harvesting and dumping resulted in the highest emissions. Regarding processes with liquids (SD3b), it was possible to distinguish emissions for spraying (propellant gas, (high) pressure and pump), sonication and brushing/rolling. The highest emissions observed in SD3b were for propellant gas spraying and pressure spraying. The highest emissions for the handling of nano-articles (SD4) were found to nano-sized particles (including NOAA) for grinding. This study provides a valuable overview of emission assessments performed in the workplace during the occupational handling of NOAA. Analyses were made per source domain to derive emission levels which can be used for models to quantitatively predict the exposure. Subject LifeRAPID - Risk Analysis for Products in DevelopmentELSS - Earth, Life and Social SciencesWork and EmploymentWorkplaceHealthy LivingData-analysesEmission potentialNOAANanomaterialProceduresEnvironmental MonitoringNanostructuresOccupational ExposureOccupational HealthWorkplace To reference this document use: http://resolver.tudelft.nl/uuid:4cc63cb9-ea0b-474c-bec2-7dbe97397426 DOI https://doi.org/10.1080/15459624.2016.1252843 TNO identifier 781358 ISSN 1545-9632 Source Journal of occupational and environmental hygiene, 14 (5), 349-359 Document type article Files To receive the publication files, please send an e-mail request to TNO Library.