Looking at the annual yield from various angles: Optical model verification for structured glass
van der Voort, R.
Energieonderzoek Centrum Nederland
In software for yearly yield calculations, normally an empirical formula is used to take the angular dependence into account. This has been shown to work nicely for standard modules. Recently light management by structures on or in the cells or module has become increasingly important. They are used to increase the path length of the light inside the module or cell, thereby increasing the response in those parts of the spectrum where the light is weakly absorbed. The response of these modules as a function of the angle of incidence is however different compared to modules without these structures. As a result, the current yearly yield calculation methods do not work for these modules. In order to derive trustworthy yearly yield estimates, the models need to be adapted. The purpose of the work is to provide a model to determine the angular dependence of output from PV modules with light management structures in the module glass. These models provide both the means to optimize light management structures and to predict performance through yearly yield calculations.
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