Review: Particulate matter emissions from aircraft
The contribution of aircraft operations to ambient ultrafine particle (UFP) concentration at and around airports can be significant. This review article considers the volatile and non-volatile elements of particulate matter emissions from aircraft engines, their characteristics and quantification and identifies gaps in knowledge. The current state of the art emission inventory methods and dispersion modelling approaches are reviewed and areas for improvement and research needs are identified. Quantification of engine non-volatile particulate matter (nvPM) is improving as measured certification data for the landing and take-off cycle are becoming available. Further work is needed: to better estimate nvPM emissions during the full-flight; to estimate non-regulated (smaller) engines; and to better estimate the emissions and evolution of volatile particles (vPM) in the aircraft exhaust plume. Dispersion modelling improvements are also needed to better address vPM. As theemissions inventory data for both vPM and nvPM from aircraft sources improve, better estimates of the contribution of aircraft engine emissions to ambient particulate concentrations will be possible.
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Atmosphere, 13 (13), 1-19