Print Email Facebook Twitter The probiotic mixture VSL#3 has differential effects on intestinal immune parameters in healthy female BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice Title The probiotic mixture VSL#3 has differential effects on intestinal immune parameters in healthy female BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice Author Mariman, R. Tielen, F. Koning, F. Nagelkerken, L. Publication year 2015 Abstract Background: Probiotic bacteria may render mice resistant to the development of various inflammatory and infectious diseases. Objective: This study aimed to identify mechanisms by which probiotic bacteria may influence intestinal immune homeostasis in noninflammatory conditions. Methods: The effect of VSL#3, a mixture of 8 probiotic bacteria, on intestinal gene expression was studied in healthy female BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice after prolonged oral treatment (28 d, triweekly) with 3 × 108 colony-forming units of VSL#3. In a separate experiment in BALB/c mice, the effects of prolonged administration of VSL#3 and of phosphatebuffered saline (PBS), followed by 1 single dose of VSL#3, on innate and adaptive immune cells were evaluated. Results: Microarray analysis of the intestines ofmice treatedwith PBS confirmedwell-established differences in the expression of immune-related genes between C57BL/6 and BALB/c mice. Prolonged administration of VSL#3 was associated with downregulation of Il13 [fold change (FC) = 0.46] and Eosinophil peroxidase (Epx) (FC = 0.44) and upregulation of Il12rb1 (FC = 2.1), C-C chemokine receptor type 5 (Ccr5) (FC = 2.6), chemokine (C-X-C motif) receptor 3 (Cxcr3) (FC = 1.6), and C-X-C motif chemokine 10 (Cxcl10) (FC = 2.8) in BALB/cmice but not in C57BL/6mice. In BALB/c mice, it was shown that 28 d of treatment with VSL#3 affected the Peyer's patches (PPs) and mesenteric lymph nodes (MLNs), which was evident from an increase in B cells (26% and 8%, respectively), a decrease in T cells (21% and 8%, respectively), and an increase in cluster of differentiation (CD) 11c+ cells (57%in PPs) comparedwith PBS-treated mice. This treatment was also associated with increased frequencies of T helper 17 (13%) and regulatory T cells (11%) in the MLNs. Treatment with PBS followed by 1 single dose of VSL#3, 18 h before killing, was associated with a 2-fold increase in CD103+CD11c+ dendritic cells in MLNs and PPs. Conclusion: VSL#3 treatmentmediatesmouse strain-specific alterations in immunologic phenotype in conditions of homeostasis, suggesting that the effects of probiotic bacteria depend on the genetic background of the host. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition. Subject LifeMHR - Metabolic Health ResearchELSS - Earth, Life and Social SciencesBiomedical InnovationBiologyHealthy LivingFlow cytometryHost geneticsImmune modulationMicroarrayProbioticsChemokine receptor CCR5Chemokine receptor CXCR3Eosinophil peroxidaseGamma interferon inducible protein 10Interleukin 12 receptor beta1Retinoid related orphan receptor gammaTranscription factor GATA 3VSL3Adaptive immunityAnimal experimentColonControlled studyFemaleGene expressionGenetic variabilityHomeostasisImmunomodulationInnate immunityIntestine mucosaMajor histocompatibility complexMesentery lymph nodeMicroarray analysisMouseMouse strainNonhumanPhenotypePrincipal component analysisProtein expressionSingle drug doseSmall intestineUpregulationMus To reference this document use: http://resolver.tudelft.nl/uuid:371f2f8d-949a-4362-af99-07cfcf04c1d1 DOI https://doi.org/10.3945/jn.114.199729 TNO identifier 526252 ISSN 0022-3166 Source Journal of Nutrition, 145 (6), 1354-1361 Document type article Files To receive the publication files, please send an e-mail request to TNO Library.