Task analysis of information technology-mediated medication management in outpatient care
van Stiphout, F.
Zwart-van Rijkom, J.E.F.
van Gelder, T.
ter Braak, E.W.M.T.
Aims Educating physicians in the procedural as well as cognitive skills of information technology (IT)-mediated medication management could be one of the missing links for the improvement of patient safety. We aimed to compose a framework of tasks that need to be addressed to optimize medication management in outpatient care. Methods Formal task analysis: decomposition of a complex task into a set of subtasks. First, we obtained a general description of the medication management process from exploratory interviews. Secondly, we interviewed experts in-depth to further define tasks and subtasks. Setting: Outpatient care in different fields of medicine in six teaching and academic medical centres in the Netherlands and the United States. Participants: 20 experts. Tasks were divided up into procedural, cognitive and macrocognitive tasks and categorized into the three components of dynamic decision making. Results The medication management process consists of three components: (i) reviewing the medication situation; (ii) composing a treatment plan; and (iii) accomplishing and communicating a treatment and surveillance plan. Subtasks include multiple cognitive tasks such as composing a list of current medications and evaluating the reliability of sources, and procedural tasks such as documenting current medication. The identified macrocognitive tasks were: planning, integration of IT in workflow, managing uncertainties and responsibilities, and problem detection. Conclusions All identified procedural, cognitive and macrocognitive skills should be included when designing education for IT-mediated medication management. The resulting framework supports the design of educational interventions to improve IT-mediated medication management in outpatient care. © 2015 The Authors. British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology published by John Wiley and Sons Ltd on behalf of The British Pharmacological Society.
Human & Operational Modelling
To reference this document use:
HOI - Human Behaviour & Organisational Innovations
ELSS - Earth, Life and Social Sciences
Formal task analysis
Medication therapy management
Blackwell Publishing Ltd
British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology, 80 (3), 415-424