Print Email Facebook Twitter Assessing the effectiveness of ramp-up during sonar operations using exposure models Title Assessing the effectiveness of ramp-up during sonar operations using exposure models Author von Benda-Beckmann, A.M. Wensveen, P.J. Kvadsheim, P.H. Lam, F.P.A. Miller, P.J.O. Tyack, P.L. Ainslie, M.A. Contributor Popper, A.N. (editor) Hawkins, A. (editor) Publication year 2016 Abstract Ramp-up procedures are used to mitigate the impact of sound on marine mammals. Sound exposure models combined with observations of marine mammals responding to sound can be used to assess the effectiveness of ramp-up procedures. We found that ramp-up procedures before full-level sonar operations can reduce the risk of hearing threshold shifts with marine mammals, but their effectiveness depends strongly on the responsiveness of the animals. In this paper, we investigated the effect of sonar parameters (source level, pulse-repetition time, ship speed) on sound exposure by using a simple analytical model and highlight the mechanisms that limit the effectiveness of ramp-up procedures. Subject Observation, Weapon & Protection SystemsAS - Acoustics & SonarTS - Technical SciencesDefence ResearchBiologyDefence, Safety and SecurityUnderwater AcousticsRamp-up ProceduresActive SonarSound MitigationMarine mammalsKiller WhalesExposure ModelingSoft startSonar To reference this document use: http://resolver.tudelft.nl/uuid:28c1d213-5f5a-4531-a4fa-48f01a544f35 DOI https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4939-2981-8_150 TNO identifier 530221 Publisher Springer, New York Source The Effects of Noise on Aquatic Life II, 1197-1203 Series Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology Document type bookPart Files To receive the publication files, please send an e-mail request to TNO Library.