Print Email Facebook Twitter Risk estimation for carcinogens based on epidemiological data: A structured approach, illustrated by an example on chromium Title Risk estimation for carcinogens based on epidemiological data: A structured approach, illustrated by an example on chromium Author Goldbohm, R.A. Tielemans, E.L.J.P. Heederik, D. Rubingh, C.M. Dekkers, S. Willems, M.I. Dinant Kroese, E. TNO Kwaliteit van Leven Publication year 2006 Abstract It is generally recognized that human, epidemiological data, if available, are preferred as the starting point for quantitative risk analysis above the use of data from animal studies. Although methods to obtain proper risk estimates from epidemiological data are available, several impediments prevent their widespread application. These impediments include unfamiliarity with epidemiological methods and the lack of a structured and transparent approach. We described a framework to conduct quantitative cancer risk assessment based on epidemiological studies in a structured, transparent, and reproducible manner. Important features of the process include a weight-of-the-evidence approach, estimation of the optimal exposure-risk function by fitting a regression model to the epidemiological data, estimation of uncertainty introduced by potential biases and missing information in the epidemiological studies, and calculation of excess lifetime risk through a life table to take into account competing risks. Sensitivity analyses are a useful tool to obtain insight into the impact of assumptions made and the variability of the underlying data. The framework is sufficiently flexible to allow many types of data, ranging from published, sometimes incomplete data to detailed individual data, while maintaining an optimal result, i.e., a state-of-the-art risk estimate with confidence intervals, based on all available evidence of sufficient quality. © 2006 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Subject HealthFood and Chemical Risk AnalysisChromiumEpidemiologyExcess lifetime riskLung cancerPotencyProbabilisticRisk assessmentSensitivity analysisUncertaintyVariabilitycarcinogenchromiumanalytic methodarticlebiometrycalculationcancer mortalitycancer riskcase control studycause of deathcohort analysisconfidence intervaldata analysisepidemiological dataevidence based medicineexperimentationexposurehumaninformation processinglife tablelifespanlung cancermathematical modelmethodologyobservational studyoccupational exposurepriority journalpublicationqualitative analysisquantitative analysisreproducibilityrisk assessmentrisk factorsensitivity analysisstatistical modeluncertaintyAnimalsCarcinogens, EnvironmentalChromiumData Interpretation, StatisticalEpidemiologic MethodsHumansLung NeoplasmsRisk AssessmentAnimalia To reference this document use: http://resolver.tudelft.nl/uuid:22c642ea-b6e6-4571-b26a-51403ce86d8d DOI https://doi.org/10.1016/j.yrtph.2006.01.007 TNO identifier 239211 ISSN 0273-2300 Source Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology, 44 (3), 294-310 Document type article Files To receive the publication files, please send an e-mail request to TNO Library.