Fast universal quantum gate above the fault-tolerance threshold in silicon
Fault-tolerant quantum computers that can solve hard problems rely on quantum error correction1. One of the most promising error correction codes is the surface code, which requires universal gate fidelities exceeding an error correction threshold of 99%. Among the many qubit platforms, only superconducting circuits, trapped ions and nitrogen-vacancy centres in diamond have delivered this requirement. Electron spin qubits in silicon are particularly promising for a large-scale quantum computer owing to their nanofabrication capability, but the two-qubit gate fidelity has been limited to 98% owing to the slow operation. Here we demonstrate a two-qubit gate fidelity of 99.5%, along with single-qubit gate fidelities of 99.8%, in silicon spin qubits by fast electrical control using a micromagnet-induced gradient field and a tunable two-qubit coupling. We identify the qubit rotation speed and coupling strength where we robustly achieve high-fidelity gates. We realize Deutsch–Jozsa and Grover search algorithms with high success rates using our universal gate set. Our results demonstrate universal gate fidelity beyond the fault-tolerance threshold and may enable scalable silicon quantum computers.
High Tech Systems & Materials
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Springer Nature, Heidelberg, Germany