Longitudinal associations between parent, child, family factors and dyssomnias in children from birth to 8 years: The CIKEO study
van Grieken, A.
Background: Dyssomnias, are the most common parent-reported sleep complaints in young children. The present study investigated the prevalence, one-year development (incidence and persistence) of dyssomnia in early childhood, and the parent, child, and family factors associated with dyssomnia. Methods: Longitudinal data of 700 children aged 0-8, gathered in the CIKEO cohort study in the Netherlands were analyzed. Dyssomnias were defined as the presence of night awakenings ≥3 times per night or sleep-onset latency of >30 min. Least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO) was used to identify the parental, child, and family factors associated with the incidence and persistence of dyssomnias in children. Results: The mean age of the children (47 % girls) was 3.2 ± 1.9 years at baseline and 4.4 ± 1.8 years at follow-up. The prevalence of dyssomnias was 13.3 % and 15.4 % at baseline and follow-up, respectively. The incidence and persistence rates of dyssomnias at follow-up were 12.0 % and 37.6 %, respectively. New incidence of insomnia was associated with being a girl, having medical conditions, experiencing stressful life events, and lower parenting self-efficacy at baseline (P < 0.05). Higher levels of parental psychological distress were associated with the persistence of dyssomnias in children (P < 0.05). Conclusions: Dyssomnias are common with a moderate persistent rate in young children. Several parental, child, and family factors in relation to the incidence and persistence of dyssomnias were identified. Preventive programs and interventions targeting modifiable factors, particularly parental psychological distress, parenting self-efficacy, and resilience to stressful life events, might benefit child sleep.
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Journal of Affective Disorders, 323 (323), 496-505