Thermally operated mobile air-conditioning systems: Development and tests of three lab-scale prototypes
de Boer, R.
"Both the EU directive on the use of fluorinated refrigerants for MAC systems as well as lower CO2 emission targets force the car manufacturers to find more sustainable ways for climate control of the vehicle interior. Sorption cooling technology can provide a more sustainable alternative than conventional compression cooling technology. Sorption cooling systems use natural refrigerants such as water or ammonia, and are driven by thermal energy. This technology allows a reduction of the direct impact of MAC systems to zero, as well as a significant reduction in the fuel over-consumption through the use of waste heat from the engine as the driving energy for the air-conditioning. The TOPMACS project aims at the development of innovative MAC systems for cars and trucks. Within the project three different adsorption systems were developed as lab-scale prototypes and have been tested under thermal conditions derived from the normalized European driving cycle (NEDC). The working pairs selected for the lab scale prototypes are •Activated Carbon – Ammonia •Zeolite – water •Silica gel – water These working pairs are selected for their ability to operate using waste heat from the engine coolant loop as driving source. The research challenges were: – to fulfill the cooling requirements using the available waste heat as driving source under NEDC conditions; – to design the prototypes taking into consideration the volume and weight constraints for mobile applications."
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